Y-Chromosome DNA Study Presentation 

by Wade Glascock

 ~ Hooper DNA Projects Administrator ~

Hooper Y-DNA Table Index

For More Information ~ Check Out "DNA - 101" by Blair Genealogy

Welcome to the Hooper Y-DNA Project ~

Most of you have heard of the many advances being made in the study of genetics.  DNA testing is being used to prove paternity and to screen for genetic diseases. Scientists have also discovered that DNA testing can be used in the study of genealogy.  To see how this works we'll need to take a little trip back to High School Biology class:

All humans have 46 chromosomes. All of our DNA is contained in these chromosomes. Forty-four of our chromosomes are formed by a process known as recombination. The genetic information on these chromosomes is a result of the combination of DNA from both parents. In turn the information donated by each parent is the result of a combination of DNA from their parents. These chromosomes contain bits and pieces of DNA from many people in your family tree. The other two chromosomes are called the sex chromosomes. They are called the X chromosome and the Y chromosome because they look like the letters X and Y under a microscope. These chromosomes have one main function: to make a child either a boy or a girl. Women have two X chromosomes and men have an X and a Y.  One of the chromosomes has been passed to you in complete form from one of your parents and the other chromosome comes to you in complete form from the other parent. There is no intermixing of DNA in these chromosomes. 

Since only men have the Y chromosome and they only have one of them, there is only one possible path of inheritance for the DNA on this chromosome.  All men inherit the DNA on their Y chromosome in largely unaltered form from their father who inherited his Y-DNA from his father in largely unaltered form, etc.  This means that all direct male line descendants of a particular male ancestor will have DNA on their Y chromosomes that are identical or very nearly identical.

There are now companies that have been formed specifically to assist family history buffs to make connections with others through the testing of DNA. These companies test short segments (called markers) of the Y chromosome. Each of these segments has been given a scientific name to identify its particular location on the DNA strand. You'll see names such as DYS 390 and DYS 439. In the testing process the markers are given numerical values that are called alleles or repeats. Repeats is an easier way to understand the values. Each of the markers has its own unique sequence of chemicals. This sequence is repeated over and over again within the marker segment. The numerical value equates to the number of times the sequence is repeated. If DYS 390 has a value of 10, then the unique sequence of chemicals that defines DYS 390 is repeated 10 times. You've also heard of DNA mutations. The actual chemical sequence in a marker will never change, but the number of times it repeats will, hence a repeat change would increase or decrease the number value and would be called a mutation.

We can use Y chromosome DNA testing by comparing the number of repeat values for several markers between two or more people. The repeat value is passed from generation to generation in largely unaltered form. There will be an occasional mutation but the majority of marker repeat values will be the same for two people with a common ancestor.

Now that you know everything there is to know about DNA testing you probably want some specifics on the Hooper DNA Project.  Our goal is simple: To find biological connections between as many Hooper branches as possible.

We have chosen to use a company called Family Tree DNA. Their company was founded exclusively to provide DNA testing for the genealogist. Other companies started out in health related or paternity testing and took on genealogy as an afterthought.  Not so with Family Tree DNA.

To participate you must be a male with an unbroken male to male line from a Hooper ancestor.  The costs vary depending on the number of markers in the test that you order.  Be aware that the 12 marker test will not tell you for certain of any biological relationship with your ancestor - you must order the 25 marker test or greater to be certain of a connection.  The tests come in 12, 25, 37 or 67 markers and are identified, when ordering, as Y-DNA12, Y-DNA25, Y-DNA37 or Y-DNA67.  In addition to ordering a test, each Participant in the Hooper DNA Project must submit a "mini family tree" (to see examples - click on any participant number on the DNA Table) and a note sent to the WebMaster giving permission to post their mini family tree and DNA results on this website.

If you need further information please contact Wade Glascock  

Materials on this page and linked webpages within this site are 2002-present by Clay Hooper, those that have submitted materials, and those that have participated in the HOOPER DNA PROJECT. Family researchers and tax-exempt genealogical societies may freely link to these web pages and/or use the material personally, as described under copyright law. All for-profit reproduction of these electronic pages - in any format - by any other organization or persons is restricted by the author. All others desiring to use this material must obtain written consent of the copyright holder.